Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Neurosci. 2001 Jun;13(12):2314-8.

Design and characterization of a DNA-encoded, voltage-sensitive fluorescent protein.

Author information

Laboratory for Neuronal Circuit Dynamics, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-Shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.


Optical imaging of electrical activity has been suggested as a promising approach to investigate the multineuronal representation of information processing in brain tissue. While considerable progress has been made in the development of instrumentation suitable for high-speed imaging, intrinsic or extrinsic dye-mediated optical signals are often of limited use due to their slow response dynamics, low effective sensitivity, toxicity or undefined cellular origin. Protein-based and DNA-encoded voltage sensors could overcome these limitations. Here we report the design and generation of a voltage-sensitive fluorescent protein (VSFP) consisting of a voltage sensing domain of a potassium channel and a pair of cyan and yellow emitting mutants of green fluorescent protein (GFP). In response to a change in transmembrane voltage, the voltage sensor alters the amount of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the pair of GFP mutants. The optical signals respond in the millisecond time-scale of fast electrical signalling and are large enough to allow monitoring of voltage changes at the single cell level.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center