Send to

Choose Destination
Virology. 2001 Jul 20;286(1):91-9.

12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induces Epstein-Barr virus reactivation via NF-kappaB and AP-1 as regulated by protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase.

Author information

Department of Biosignaling, Tottori University, Yonago, 683-8503, Japan.


Signaling pathway components mediating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) were characterized in terms of induction and modification of specific transacting factors. The consequences of protein kinase C (PKC) activation by TPA in inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression were analyzed in the EBV-infected gastric epithelial cell line GT38. Spontaneous expression of the EBV BZLF1 gene product ZEBRA became undetectable upon long-term culturing of GT38 cells, while iNOS mRNA expression increased. In such cells the PKC inhibitors 1-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-2,5-dimethylpiperazine (H7) and staurosporine inhibited TPA-induced expression of BZLF1 and BRLF1 and reversed TPA-mediated inhibition of iNOS gene expression. The mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor PD98059 inhibited TPA-induced BZLF1 expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 were also activated by TPA in a time-dependent manner. The TPA-induced NF-kappaB activation was inhibited by prior treatment of the cells with the NF-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). TPA-induced BZLF1 expression was also inhibited by the treatment with PDTC. Northern blot analyses characterized changes in levels of the c-jun and junB expressions of the AP-1 family. These results show that TPA induces EBV reactivation via NF-kappaB and AP-1 and that PKC is an important mediator in regulating gene expression leading to EBV reactivation after TPA treatment of GT38 cells.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center