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Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2001 Jul;49(3):199-205.

Toxicokinetics of atrazine in embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

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  • 1Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, M├╝ggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin, Germany.


Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamine-s-triazine) is a widely used selective herbicide. Due to its persistence, it is present in many surface waters, contaminating nontarget organisms such as fish. Teratogeny of atrazine was examined during the first 48 h of zebrafish development (embryo test) and correlated to effects on the microsomal and soluble glutathione S-transferases (m-/sGST; EC Atrazine at 4 mg/L disturbed the normal development to long pec stage, at concentrations between 10 and 20 mg/L it caused retardations in organogenesis, a slowdown of movements, and functional disturbances of heart and circulatory system. m- and sGST activities were affected by atrazine in all investigated developmental stages. Atrazine elevated the mGST activity dose dependently up to a concentration of 5 mg/L, and the sGST up to 1 mg/L. Higher atrazine concentrations caused a decrease of GST activity, especially of the sGST of the younger stages, 32 cells and 75% epiboly. This might indicate that the detoxication system itself is affected, which then gives rise to morphological abnormalities during fish development. In vitro tests were performed to purify and characterize GST-formed atrazine metabolites by the use of ESI--HPLC--MS. mGST showed higher conversion rates compared to sGST.

Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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