Send to

Choose Destination
Neurosci Lett. 2001 Jul 20;307(3):139-42.

An unusual population of pyramidal neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of hominids contains the calcium-binding protein calretinin.

Author information

Kastor Neurobiology of Aging Laboratories, Box 1639, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA.


In the context of an on-going comparative analysis of primate neocortex evolution, we describe the occurrence and distribution of a previously unrecognized group of pyramidal neurons, restricted to the superficial part of layer V in the anterior cingulate cortex of hominids and characterized by immunoreactivity to the calcium-binding protein, calretinin. These neurons were rare in orangutans, more numerous in gorillas and common chimpanzees, while humans had the highest numbers. These calretinin-containing pyramidal cells were not observed in the cingulate cortex of any other primate or mammalian species. This finding, together with other recent observations on the hominoid cingulate cortex, is interesting when considering primate neocortical evolution, as it indicates possible adaptive and anatomical modifications in a cortical region critical for the integration of many aspects of autonomic function, vocalization, and cognitive processes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center