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J Invertebr Pathol. 2001 May;77(4):258-68.

Effects of time, temperature, and honey on Nosema apis (Microsporidia: Nosematidae), a parasite of the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

Author information

1
Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Limited, Mt. Albert Research Centre, Auckland, New Zealand. L.Malone@HORT.CRI.NZ

Abstract

Newly emerged adult bees were fed with Nosema apis spores subjected to various treatments, and their longevity, proportions of bees infected, and spores per bee recorded. Spores lost viability after 1, 3, or 6 months in active manuka or multifloral honey, after 3 days in multifloral honey, and after 21 days in water or sugar syrup at 33 degrees C. Air-dried spores lost viability after 3 or 5 days at 40 degrees, 45 degrees, or 49 degrees C. Increasing numbers of bees became infected with increasing doses of spores, regardless of their subsequent food (active manuka honey, thyme honey, or sugar syrup). Final spore loads were similar among bees receiving the same food, regardless of dose. Bees fed with either honey had lighter infections than those fed with syrup, but this may have been due to reductions in their longevity. Bees fed with manuka honey were significantly shorter lived, whether infected or not.

PMID:
11437529
DOI:
10.1006/jipa.2001.5028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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