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Vet Res. 2001 May-Aug;32(3-4):201-25.

Use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and mechanisms of resistance.

Author information

1
Institut für Tierzucht und Tierverhalten, Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft (FAL), Celle, Germany. stefan.schwarz@fal.de

Abstract

This review deals with the application of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and food animal production and the possible consequences arising from the widespread and multipurpose use of antimicrobials. The various mechanisms that bacteria have developed to escape the inhibitory effects of the antimicrobials most frequently used in the veterinary field are reported in detail. Resistance of bacteria to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics, beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol/florfenicol is described with regard to enzymatic inactivation, decreased intracellular drug accumulation and modification/protection/replacement of the target sites. In addition, basic information is given about mobile genetic elements which carry the respective resistance genes, such as plasmids, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and their ways of spreading via conjugation, mobilisation, transduction, and transformation.

PMID:
11432414
DOI:
10.1051/vetres:2001120
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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