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Anesth Prog. 2000 Winter;47(4):119-24.

Preemptive effects of a combination of preoperative diclofenac, butorphanol, and lidocaine on postoperative pain management following orthognathic surgery.

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Department of Dental Anesthesiology, Tokyo Dental College, 1-2-2 Masago, Mihamaku, Chiba City 261-0011, Japan.


The aim of the study was to investigate whether preemptive multimodal analgesia (diclofenac, butorphanol, and lidocaine) was obtained during sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO). Following institutional approval and informed consent, 82 healthy patients (ASA-I) undergoing SSRO were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, the preemptive multimodal analgesia group (group P, n = 41) and the control group (group C, n = 41). This study was conducted in a double-blind manner. Patients in group P received 50 mg rectal diclofenac sodium, 10 micrograms/kg intravenous 0.1% butorphanol tartrate, and 1% lidocaine solution containing 10 micrograms/mL epinephrine for regional anesthesia and for bilateral inferior alveolar nerve blocks before the start of surgery. Postoperative pain intensity at rest (POPI) was assessed on a numerical rating score (NRS) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at the first water intake (FWI) and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after extubation. POPI in the PACU was significantly lower in group P than in group C, whereas there were no significant differences at FWI, 24, 48, and 72 hours after extubation in both groups. Preemptive multimodal analgesia was not observed in this study.

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