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J Neuroimmunol. 2001 Jul 2;117(1-2):97-107.

Glutamate is a mediator of neurotoxicity in secretions of activated HIV-1-infected macrophages.

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Laboratory of Neurotoxicology, NIMH, 10 Center Drive, Room 3D42, NIH, 20892-1262, Bethesda, MD, USA.


We sought to identify neurotoxin(s) secreted by HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes that could contribute to the pathophysiology of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). Neurotoxic factors were characterized in batches of conditioned media (CM) from human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected with HIV-1(ADA) and/or activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All of the neurotoxicity was: present in the <3000-Da fraction; blocked by 5 microM MK801; and not trypsin sensitive or extractable into polar organic solvents. Glutamate measured in CM accounted for all neurotoxic effects observed from HIV/LPS CM in astrocyte-poor neuronal cultures and may contribute to the pathophysiology of HIV-1-associated dementia.

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