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J Adv Nurs. 2001 Apr;34(2):163-70.

Effectiveness of breast self-examination nursing interventions for Taiwanese community target groups.

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National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Community Health Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan.



Because of the increasing morbidity and mortality from breast cancer, the Health Department in Taiwan in 1992 has identified early detection of breast cancer as one of the national health objectives. The effectiveness of Breast Self-Examination (BSE) in detecting breast cancer depends not only on frequency, but also on accuracy. This study explored the effects of nursing intervention on the BSE intention, BSE frequency and BSE accuracy among beauticians as community target groups.


This study was comprised of two stages. In the first stage, 198 beauticians in Taipei County were surveyed. Those women with perceived barrier scores > or =15 points in the first stage were selected for the second stage with the quasi-experimental design. The experimental group was provided with BSE instruction for the enhancement of BSE competence, personalized strategies to reduce barriers to BSE and monthly telephone reminders after BSE instruction class for 3 months. The study instruments were Champion's BSE questionnaire, Lashley's 15 BSE steps and BSE items of social norm referenced Lierman et al.


The mean age of the 198 beauticians was 28 (+/-8.6), the mean year of education was 10 (+/-2.4) and 60% of participants were married. The results of the study indicate that the program significantly increased BSE frequency, BSE accuracy, perceived benefit of BSE, perceived competence in BSE and decreased perceived susceptibility to breast cancer and perceived barriers to practice BSE. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the perceived competency, susceptibility and social normative influence accounted for 25% of the variance in BSE intention. Perceived competency and social normative influence accounted for 15% of the variance in BSE frequency, while intention, social normative influence and perceived competency accounted for 21% of the variance in BSE accuracy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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