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AIDS. 2001 Jul 6;15(10):1225-37.

Dual-subtype FIV vaccine protects cats against in vivo swarms of both homologous and heterologous subtype FIV isolates.

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1
Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611-0880, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the immunogenicity and efficacy of an inactivated dual-subtype feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine.

DESIGN:

Specific-pathogen-free cats were immunized with dual-subtype (subtype A FIV(Pet) and subtype D FIV(Shi)) vaccine and challenged with either in vivo- or in vitro-derived FIV inocula.

METHODS:

Dual-subtype vaccinated, single-subtype vaccinated, and placebo-immunized cats were challenged within vivo-derived heterologous subtype B FIV(Bang) [10--100 50% cat infectious doses (CID(50))], in vivo-derived homologous FIV(Shi)(50 CID(50)), and in vitro- and in vivo-derived homologous FIV(Pet)(20--50 CID(50)). Dual-subtype vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy were evaluated and compared to single-subtype strain vaccines. FIV infection was determined using virus isolation and proviral PCR of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphoid tissues.

RESULTS:

Four out of five dual-subtype vaccinated cats were protected against low-dose FIV(Bang) (10 CID(50)) and subsequently against in vivo-derived FIV(Pet) (50 CID(50)) challenge, whereas all placebo-immunized cats became infected. Furthermore, dual-subtype vaccine protected two out of five cats against high-dose FIV(Bang) challenge (100 CID(50)) which infected seven out of eight single-subtype vaccinated cats. All dual-subtype vaccinated cats were protected against in vivo-derived FIV(Pet), but only one out of five single-subtype vaccinated cats were protected against in vivo-derived FIV(Pet). Dual-subtype vaccination induced broad-spectrum virus-neutralizing antibodies and FIV-specific interferon-gamma responses along with elevated FIV-specific perforin mRNA levels, suggesting an increase in cytotoxic cell activities.

CONCLUSION:

Dual-subtype vaccinated cats developed broad-spectrum humoral and cellular immunity which protected cats against in vivo-derived inocula of homologous and heterologous FIV subtypes. Thus, multi-subtype antigen vaccines may be an effective strategy against AIDS viruses.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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