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Br J Ophthalmol. 2001 Jul;85(7):816-21.

Halo size under distance and near conditions in refractive multifocal intraocular lenses.

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Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, Medical School, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria.



To calculate the diameter of halos perceived by patients with multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) and to stimulate halos in patients with refractive multifocal IOLs in a clinical experiment.


Calculations were done to show the diameter of halos in the case of the bifocal intraocular lens. 24 patients with a refractive multifocal IOLs and five patients with a monofocal IOL were asked about their subjective observation of halos and were included in a clinical experiment using a computer program (Glare & Halo, FW Fitzke and C Lohmann, Tomey AG) which simulates a light source of 0.15 square degrees (sq deg) in order to stimulate and measure halos. Halo testing took place monoculary, under mesopic conditions through the distance and the near focus of the multifocal lens and through the focus of the monofocal lens.


The halo diameter depends on the pupil diameter, the refractive power of the cornea, and distance focus of the multifocal IOL as well as the additional lens power for the near focus. 23 out of 24 patients with a refractive multifocal IOL described halos at night when looking at a bright light source. Only one patient was disturbed by the appearance of halos. Under test conditions, halos were detected in all patients with a refractive multifocal IOL. The halo area testing through the distance focus was 1.05 sq deg +/- 0.41, through the near focus 1.07 sq deg +/- 0.49 and in the monofocal lens 0.26 sq deg +/- 0.13.


Under high contrast conditions halos can be stimulated in all patients with multifocal intraocular lenses. The halo size using the distance or the near focus is identical.

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