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Cancer J. 2001 May-Jun;7(3):191-202.

Signal therapy for RAS-induced cancers in combination of AG 879 and PP1, specific inhibitors for ErbB2 and Src family kinases, that block PAK activation.

Author information

1
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, P.O. Box 2008, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville/Melbourne, Australia 3050.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Both EGF family ligands and ErbB family receptor kinases act upstream of RAS to induce mitogenesis of normal cells, such as NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. However, oncogenically mutated RAS, such as v-Ha-RAS is constitutively activated and therefore no longer requires these ligands or receptors for its activation. Nevertheless, it up-regulates the expression of these EGF family ligands. To understand the biologic significance of RAS-induced up-regulation of these ligands in both RAS-induced PAK activation and malignant transformation, we have conducted the following studies, based on the previous observations that (1) the N-terminal SH3 domain of PIX selectively binds a Pro-rich domain of 18 amino acids of PAKs, CDC42/Rac-dependent Ser/Thr kinase family, and (2) this specific interaction is essential for both PAK activation and membrane ruffling

RESULTS:

Using four distinct, cell-permeable, and highly specific inhibitors, namely WR-PAK18, which blocks the PAK-PIX interaction; AG 1478, which inhibits ErbB1 kinase activity; and AG 825 or AG 879, which inhibits ErbB2 kinase activity, we demonstrate that (1) the PAK-PIX interaction is essential for v-Ha-RAS-induced malignant transformation; (2) v-Ha-RAS requires not only ErbB1 but also ErbB2, which are activated through two independent autocrine pathways to induce both the PIX/Rac/CDC42-dependent PAK activation and malignant transformation in vitro; and (3) a combination of AG 879 and the Src family kinase-specific inhibitor PP1 suppresses almost completely the growth of RAS-induced sarcomas in nude mice.

CONCLUSION:

These findings not only change our conventional view on the role of these RAS-inducible ligands and ErbB family receptors (serving as RAS activators) but also suggest a new avenue for the treatment of RAS-associated cancers by a combination of inhibitors specific for ERbB, Src, or PAK family kinases.

PMID:
11419027
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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