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J Lab Clin Med. 1975 Jan;85(1):41-9.

Impaired water handling in chronic obstructive lung disease.

Abstract

Impaired water excretion has been described in stable, nonedematous patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD). To elucidate the mechanism involved, we measured basal glomerular filtration rate (GFR), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), and water, sodium, and solute excretion for 4 hours after water loading (20 ml. per kilogram orally or as D5W intravenously) in two groups of 10 age-matched, hypoxic, stable, nonedematous COLD normocapneic and hypercapneic patients (PCO2 less than or greater than 45 mm. Hg, respectively). In 5 patients of each group, additional measurements of plasma and urine osmolality and plasma vasopressin were made at 30-minute intervals after oral water loading and the results compared to those obtained in 10 normal control subjects. Hypoxic (PO2 61 plus or minus 2 mm. Hg), normocapneic (PCO2 39 plus or minus 1 mm. Hg) patients had normal GFR (114 plus or minus 5 ml. per minute) and ERPF (517 plus or minus 31 ml. per minute) and excreted the load normally (101 plus or minus 5 per cent of oral or intravenous water per 4-hours). This was associated with a normal rate of sodium excretion (34 plus or minus 5 mEq. per 4-hours) and low-normal plasma vasopressin (1.9 plus or minus 0.7 pg. per milliliter) which was suppressed appropriately with water loading. Hypercapneic (PCO2' 62 plus or minus 5), hypoxic (PCO2' 57 plus or minus 2) patients had normal GFR (106 plus or minus 7), low baseline vasopressin (1.1 plus or minus 0.2) which was suppressed appropriately, and decreased (p less than 0.05) 4-hour water excretion (63 plus or minus 8 per cent), 4-hour sodium excretion (15 plus or minus 9), and ERPF (394 plus or minus 31). A significant correlation was observed between impaired water and impaired sodium excretion (p less than 0.05). These studies indicate that in COLD patients: (1) hypercapnia but not hypoxemia is related to the abnormal water handling and to the increased reabsorption of sodium by the renal tubule; (2) the defect in water excretion is not related to abnormal vasopressin secretion or metabolism; (3) the alteration in sodium excretion may be due to hypercapneic-induced increase in renal bicarbonate reabsorption and/or abnormal renal blood flow.

PMID:
1141729
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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