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Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 1996 Jul;11(5):253-259.

Relationship between vertical ground reaction force and speed during walking, slow jogging, and running.

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  • 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Vermont, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To obtain descriptive information between vertical ground reaction force (GRF)-time histories and gait speed, running style, and gender.

DESIGN:

GRF-time history measurements were obtained from male and female subjects during walking, slow jogging, jogging and running on an indoor platform.

BACKGROUND:

Previous studies have established GRF descriptor variables for male subjects running at speeds from 3 to 6 m s(-1), but very little descriptive data exists for slower or faster running, nor have previous studies reported GRF descriptors separately for female subjects.

METHODS:

GRF-time histories were recorded for 13 male and 10 female recreational athletes during walking and slow jogging at speeds between 1.5 and 3.0 m s(-1), and running at speeds between 3.5 and 6.0 m s(-1). Vertical GRF-time data for trials with speeds within 0.2 m s(-1) of the prescribed speed were analysed to determine thrust maximum GRF (F(z)) and loading rate (G(z)).

RESULTS:

In both male and female subjects, F(z) increased linearly during walking and running from 1.2 BW to approximately 2.5 BW at 6.0 m s(-1), remaining constant during forward lean sprinting at higher speeds. F(z) was linearly correlated to G(z), the latter ranging from 8 to 30 BW s(-1) over this speed range. Slow jogging was associated with a > 50% higher F(z) and G(z) in comparison to walking or fast running.

CONCLUSIONS:

Similar GRF descriptor data and velocity relationships were obtained for male and female subjects. Impact forces were greatest when the subjects adopted a higher, less fixed centre of gravity during slow jogging.

RELEVANCE:

These results suggest that vertical GRF norms can be established for male and female subjects alike, and that slow or fast running with a lower, fixed centre of gravity decreases impact forces.

PMID:
11415629
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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