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Clin Immunol. 2001 Jul;100(1):15-23.

Distinct interactions of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome gene product SAP with cytoplasmic domains of members of the CD2 receptor family.

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Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1578, USA.


X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP; Duncan's disease) is a primary immunodeficiency disease that manifests as an inability to regulate the immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Here we examine the ability of the product of the gene defective in XLP, SAP (DSHP/SH2D1A), to associate with the cytoplasmic domains of several members of the CD2 subfamily of cell surface receptors, including SLAM, 2B4, and CD84. While recruitment of SAP to SLAM occurred in a phosphorylation-independent manner, SAP was found to bind preferentially to tyrosine-phosphorylated cytoplasmic domains within 2B4 and CD84. Missense or nonsense mutations in the SAP open reading frame were identified in five of seven clinically diagnosed XLP patients from different kindreds. Four of these variants retained the ability to bind to the cytoplasmic tails of SLAM and CD84. While ectopic expression of wild-type SAP was observed to block the binding of SHP-2 to SLAM, mutant SAP derivatives that retained the ability to bind SLAM did not inhibit recruitment of SHP-2 to SLAM. In contrast, SAP binding to CD84 had no effect on the ability of CD84 to recruit SHP-2, but instead displaced SHP-1 from the cytoplasmic tail of CD84. These results suggest that mutations in the gene encoding the XLP protein SAP lead to functional defects in the protein that include receptor binding and SHP-1 and SHP-2 displacement and that SAP utilizes different mechanisms to regulate signaling through the CD2 family of receptors.

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