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NMR Biomed. 2001 Jun;14(4):260-4.

Automatic quantitation of localized in vivo 1H spectra with LCModel.

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Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, D-37070 Göttingen, Germany.


The LCModel method analyzes an in vivo spectrum as a Linear Combination of Model in vitro spectra from individual metabolite solutions. Complete model spectra, rather than individual resonances, are used in order to incorporate maximum prior information into the analysis. A nearly model-free constrained regularization method automatically accounts for the baseline and lineshape in vivo without imposing a restrictive parameterized form on them. LCModel is automatic (non-interactive) with no subjective input. Approximately maximum-likelihood estimates of the metabolite concentrations and their uncertainties (Cramér-Rao lower bounds) are obtained. LCModel analyses of spectra from users with fields from 1.5 to 9.4 T and a wide range of sequences, particularly with short TE, are used here to illustrate the capabilities and limitations of LCModel and proton MRS.

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