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J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jun;49(6):2883-8.

Metabolism of phenolic compounds during loquat fruit development.

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College of Agriculture, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.


Phenolic compounds in loquat fruit were identified as 5-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), neochlorogenic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, 5-p-feruloylquinic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, epicatechin, o-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Neochlorogenic acid was found to be dominant in the early stages of loquat fruit development. Both the concentrations and types of phenolic compounds were high in young fruit but then decreased steadily during growth. However, the concentration of chlorogenic acid increased during ripening and became predominant in ripe fruit. The large rise in chlorogenic acid concentration appears to be a characteristic of loquat fruit ripening. In all of the cultivars tested, the types of phenolic compounds were similar but the total phenolic content varied from 81.8 to 173.8 mg/100 g of fresh pulp. In the biosynthetic pathway of chlorogenic acid, the enzyme activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (CL), and hydroxycinnamoyl CoA:quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (CQT) were high at the early stage of growth, diminished to low levels approximately 3 weeks prior to harvest, but then rose to a peak at 1 week before harvest. The changes of these enzyme activities seemed to be associated with variations in chlorogenic acid concentration during development, maturation, and ripening of loquat fruit.

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