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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jun 22;284(4):1065-70.

Cloning of the human cholesteryl ester hydrolase promoter: identification of functional peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor responsive elements.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0050, USA.


Cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) is responsible for hydrolysis of stored cholesterol esters in macrophage foam cells and release of free cholesterol for high-density lipoprotein-mediated efflux. PCR-based screening of human genomic libraries with human macrophage CEH specific primers resulted in amplification and cloning of 1.7 kb promoter sequence. Analysis of the sequence revealed a lack of consensus TATA-box but presence of a GC-rich proximal sequence, a CAAT box and several binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1. Three putative response elements for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPRE) were identified at position -176, -779, and -1316. Down-regulation of promoter activity was observed in the presence of either PPARalpha- or PPARgamma-specific ligands and introduction of a 4-point transverse mutation in the PPRE at -176 completely abolished the effect of PPAR ligands on the promoter activity. Analogous to other genes involved in macrophage cholesterol homeostasis, human CEH may also be regulated by PPAR.

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