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Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001 Jul;281(1):C257-69.

Regulation by GDI of RhoA/Rho-kinase-induced Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle myosin II.

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Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.


We characterized the role of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle. Endogenous contents (approximately 2-4 microM) of RhoA and RhoGDI were near stoichiometric, whereas a supraphysiological GDI concentration was required to relax Ca2+ sensitization of force by GTP and guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPgammaS). GDI also inhibited Ca2+ sensitization by GTP. G14V RhoA, by alpha-adrenergic and muscarinic agonists, and extracted RhoA from membranes. GTPgammaS translocated Rho-kinase to a Triton X-114-extractable membrane fraction. GTP. G14V RhoA complexed with GDI also induced Ca2+ sensitization, probably through in vivo dissociation of GTP. RhoA from the complex, because it was reversed by addition of excess GDI. GDI did not inhibit Ca2+ sensitization by phorbol ester. Constitutively active Cdc42 and Rac1 inhibited Ca2+ sensitization by GTP. G14V RhoA. We conclude that 1) the most likely in vivo function of GDI is to prevent perpetual "recycling" of GDP. RhoA to GTP. RhoA; 2) nucleotide exchange (GTP for GDP) on complexed GDP. RhoA/GDI can precede translocation of RhoA to the membrane; 3) activation of Rho-kinase exposes a hydrophobic domain; and 4) Cdc42 and Rac1 can inhibit Ca2+ sensitization by activated GTP. RhoA.

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