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Ital Heart J. 2001 May;2(5):384-7.

Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect: prevalence of deletion 22q11 in the different anatomic patterns.

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Pediatric Cardiology, Cardiac Surgery and Genetics, Bambino Gesi Hospital, Rome, Italy.



Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD) is one of the most common cardiac defects associated with DiGeorge syndrome. The pattern of the pulmonary circulation determines the complexity of this type of heart disease. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of DiGeorge syndrome with deletion 22q11 in patients with simple and complex PA-VSD.


Since 1993 we have studied 128 consecutive patients affected by PA-VSD. In 90 of our patients the PA-VSD was considered "simple" (group I), because it was not associated with any other cardiac defects. In the other 38 children the PA-VSD was considered "complex" (group II) owing to the presence of heterotaxia, tricuspid atresia, a double-inlet left ventricle, transposition of the great arteries and congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries.


In group I, 38 patients (42%) had genetic syndromes or major extracardiac anomalies; deletion 22q11 was detected in 31% of cases. Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries were present in 50% of group I patients and in 57% of those with deletion 22q11. In group II, 10 patients (26%) had genetic syndromes or major extracardiac anomalies but none had deletion 22q11 (p < 0.005); in no case was the presence of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries observed (p < 0.005).


PA-VSD is an anatomically and morphogenetically heterogeneous disease: in the setting of DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome, PA-VSD is associated with a peculiar cardiac pattern and is due to deletion 22, whereas in case of nonsyndromic PA-VSD or when this disease is associated with different syndromes or with other types of cardiac defects, it is due to other morphogenetic mechanisms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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