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J Biol Chem. 2001 Aug 3;276(31):28719-30. Epub 2001 Jun 4.

Ligands of macrophage scavenger receptor induce cytokine expression via differential modulation of protein kinase signaling pathways.

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Faculty of Medical Technology, Institute of Biotechnology in Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan.


Our previous works demonstrated that ligands of macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR) induce protein kinases (PKs) including protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) and up-regulate urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression (Hsu, H. Y., Hajjar, D. P., Khan, K. M., and Falcone, D. J. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 1240--1246). To continue to investigate MSR ligand-mediated signal transductions, we focus on ligands, oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL), and fucoidan induction of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1). In brief, in murine macrophages J774A.1, OxLDL and fucoidan up-regulate TNF production; additionally, fucoidan but not OxLDL induces IL-1 secretion, prointerleukin 1 (proIL-1, precursor of IL-1) protein, and proIL-1 message. Simultaneously, fucoidan stimulates activity of interleukin 1-converting enzyme. We further investigate the molecular mechanism by which ligand binding-induced PK-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in regulation of expression of proIL-1 and IL-1. Specifically, fucoidan stimulates activity of p21-activated kinase (PAK) and of the MAPKs extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Combined with PK inhibitors and genetic mutants of Rac1 and JNK in PK activity assays, Western blotting analyses, and IL-1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the role of individual PKs in the regulation of proIL-1/IL-1 was extensively dissected. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of pp60Src as well as association between pp60Src and Hsp90 play important roles in fucoidan-induced proIL-1 expression. We are the first to establish two fucoidan-mediated signaling pathways: PTK(Src)/Rac1/PAK/JNK and PTK(Src)/Rac1/PAK/p38, but not PTK/phospholipase C-gamma 1/PKC/MEK1/ERK, playing critical roles in proIL-1/IL-1 regulation. Our current results indicate and suggest a model for MSR ligands differentially modulating specific PK signal transduction pathways, which regulate atherogenesis-related inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1.

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