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J Nurs Adm. 2001 May;31(5):260-72.

Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on job strain in nursing work settings: expanding Kanter's model.

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School of Nursing, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.



In this study, we tested an expanded model of Kanter's structural empowerment, which specified the relationships among structural and psychological empowerment, job strain, and work satisfaction.


Strategies proposed in Kanter's empowerment theory have the potential to reduce job strain and improve employee work satisfaction and performance in current restructured healthcare settings. The addition to the model of psychological empowerment as an outcome of structural empowerment provides an understanding of the intervening mechanisms between structural work conditions and important organizational outcomes.


A predictive, nonexperimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 404 Canadian staff nurses. The Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire, the Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, the Job Content Questionnaire, and the Global Satisfaction Scale were used to measure the major study variables.


Structural equation modelling analyses revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the data based on various fit indices (chi 2 = 1140, df = 545, chi 2/df ratio = 2.09, CFI = 0.986, RMSEA = 0.050). The amount of variance accounted for in the model was 58%. Staff nurses felt that structural empowerment in their workplace resulted in higher levels of psychological empowerment. These heightened feelings of psychological empowerment in turn strongly influenced job strain and work satisfaction. However, job strain did not have a direct effect on work satisfaction.


These results provide initial support for an expanded model of organizational empowerment and offer a broader understanding of the empowerment process.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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