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Crit Care Med. 2001 May;29(5):1049-55.

Altered alveolar mechanics in the acutely injured lung.

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, SUNY Health Science Center, Syracuse, NY, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Alterations in alveolar mechanics (i.e., the dynamic change in alveolar size during tidal ventilation) are thought to play a critical role in acute lung injuries such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this study, we describe and quantify the dynamic changes in alveolar mechanics of individual alveoli in a porcine ARDS model by direct visualization using in vivo microscopy.

DESIGN:

Prospective, observational, controlled study.

SETTING:

University research laboratory.

SUBJECTS:

Ten adult pigs.

INTERVENTIONS:

Pigs were anesthetized and placed on mechanical ventilation, underwent a left thoracotomy, and were separated into the following two groups post hoc: a control group of instrumented animals with no lung injury (n = 5), and a lung injury group in which lung injury was induced by tracheal Tween instillation, causing surfactant deactivation (n = 5). Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, blood gases, lung pressures, subpleural blood flow (laser Doppler), and alveolar mechanics (in vivo microscopy) were measured in both groups. Alveolar size was measured at peak inspiration (I) and end expiration (E) on individual subpleural alveoli by image analysis. Histologic sections of lung tissue were taken at necropsy from the injury group.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

In the acutely injured lung, three distinct alveolar inflation-deflation patterns were observed and classified: type I alveoli (n = 37) changed size minimally (I - EDelta = 367 +/- 88 microm2) during tidal ventilation; type II alveoli (n = 37) changed size dramatically (I - EDelta = 9326 +/- 1010 microm2) with tidal ventilation but did not totally collapse at end expiration; and type III alveoli (n = 12) demonstrated an even greater size change than did type II alveoli (I - EDelta = 15,418 +/- 1995 microm2), and were distinguished from type II in that they totally collapsed at end expiration (atelectasis) and reinflated during inspiration. We have termed the abnormal alveolar inflation pattern of type II and III alveoli "repetitive alveolar collapse and expansion" (RACE). RACE describes all alveoli that visibly change volume with ventilation, regardless of whether these alveoli collapse totally (type III) at end expiration. Thus, the term "collapse" in RACE refers to a visibly obvious collapse of the alveolus during expiration, whether this collapse is total or partial. In the normal lung, all alveoli measured exhibited type I mechanics. Alveoli were significantly larger at peak inspiration in type II (18,266 +/- 1317 microm2, n = 37) and III (15,418 +/- 1995 microm2, n = 12) alveoli as compared with type I (8214 +/- 655 microm2, n = 37). Tween caused a heterogenous lung injury with areas of normal alveolar mechanics adjacent to areas of abnormal alveolar mechanics. Subsequent histologic sections from normal areas exhibited no pathology, whereas lung tissue from areas with RACE mechanics demonstrated alveolar collapse, atelectasis, and leukocyte infiltration.

CONCLUSION:

Alveolar mechanics are altered in the acutely injured lung as demonstrated by the development of alveolar instability (RACE) and the increase in alveolar size at peak inspiration. Alveolar instability varied from alveolus to alveolus in the same microscopic field and included alveoli that changed area greatly with tidal ventilation but remained patent at end expiration and those that totally collapsed and reexpanded with each breath. Thus, alterations in alveolar mechanics in the acutely injured lung are complex, and attempts to assess what may be occurring at the alveolar level from analysis of inflection points on the whole-lung pressure/volume curve are likely to be erroneous. We speculate that the mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury may involve altered alveolar mechanics, specifically RACE and alveolar overdistension.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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