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Biomaterials. 2001 Jun;22(12):1449-58.

Fluoride release from glass ionomer restorative materials and the effects of surface coating.

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Dental Health Services, Primary Health Care, Ministry of Health, Doha, Qatar.



This in vitro study on fluoride (F) release from conventional and metal-reinforced glass ionomer investigated the following: (1) the release of F in deionized water compared to artificial saliva, (2) the effect of various surface coatings on F release, (3) the uptake of released F by hydroxyapatite, (4) the expression of the release data in a mathematical model, (5) F content in the powders and set materials, and (6) surface morphology of varnished and resin-coated specimens.


Glass ionomer Ketac-Fil (KF), Fuji II (FJ), and Ketac-Silver (KS) were mixed according to the manufacturers' instructions, and prepared into specimens of 137.8 mm2 surface area. All three specimens were suspended in 50 ml of deionized water, artificial saliva, or aqueous solution of hydroxyapatite and submitted to constant agitation at 37 degrees C. In a separate experiment, the specimens were coated with varnish or light-cured bonding resin and tested for F release in solutions similar to those for uncoated specimens. The release of F occurred for 28 days. The concentration of F was measured with F-ion-specific electrode.


All tested products showed a strong initial rate of F release which decreased with time until it reached a relatively steady rate after two weeks. The F released from KF and FJ was comparable in both pattern and magnitude. They released approximately four times more F than KS. In all cases, the release of F in artificial saliva was significantly (p < 0.001) less than in deionized water. Surface coating the specimens significantly reduced the F release ( p < 0.05 top < 0.001, depending on the product and type of coating). The inhibitory effect of coating markedly decreased with time. Resin coating reduced F release more than varnish in KF and KS, but not for FJ. Essentially, all F released in aqueous solution was taken up by the hydroxyapatite, with FJ ranking the highest in increasing hydroxyapatite F concentration. Over the 28 days, the quantities of F released from FJ, KF, and KS were, respectively, 3.8, 2.3, and 1.0% of the total F content in the specimens. The F concentration in the set KS was 53.9 and 72.5% of that found in KF and FJ, respectively. The release data as a function of time were best described by the power curve. Micromorphological examinations revealed remnants of surface coatings on specimens after 14 days storage in artificial saliva.


Glass ionomer cements released significantly less F in artificial saliva than in deionized water. Surface coating the specimens substantially reduced F release. These clinically relevant factors were not considered by many in vitro release studies which overestimate the F availability from glass ionomers. A recall appointment 24 h after the placement of glass ionomer restoration should be given for surface finishing.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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