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J Infect Dis. 2001 Jun 15;183(12):1805-9. Epub 2001 May 17.

Macrophage-activating cytokines in human immununodeficiency virus type 1-infected and -uninfected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Makerere University Medical School, Kampala, Uganda.


Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients globally and occurs throughout the course of HIV-1 disease. Here the production of interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of HIV-1-infected versus -uninfected patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) was compared. Findings were correlated with cytokine profiles, clinical presentation, and expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS). Most HIV-1/PTB patients with a CD4 cell count of 200-500 cells/microL had high IFN-gamma production and radiographic evidence of atypical PTB. Low IFN-gamma production and radiographic evidence of reactivated PTB characterized both HIV-1/PTB patients with a CD4 cell count >or=500 cells/microL and HIV-1-uninfected patients. TNF-alpha levels were similar in all HIV-1/PTB patients, regardless of CD4 cell count. Induction of iNOS in PBMC was low and was associated with low IFN-gamma production. These data underscore the potential pathogenic role of macrophage-activating cytokines in TB in HIV-1-infected patients.

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