Send to

Choose Destination
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2001 Apr;58(4):571-9.

Crosstalk between cell cycle regulators and the myogenic factor MyoD in skeletal myoblasts.

Author information

Cell Biology Unit, IGH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UPR 1142, Montpellier, France.


During the early process of skeletal muscle differentiation, myogenic factors are not only involved in muscle-specific gene induction but also in regulating the transition from the proliferative stage, when MyoD and Myf5 are already expressed, to the orderly exit from the cell division cycle. This key step in skeletal muscle differentiation involves the down-regulation of cell cycle activators such as cyclins and cdks, and up-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors such as Rb, p21, p27, and p57. In particular, Rb and p21 have been shown to play an important role in the growth arrest of differentiating myoblasts. Their level and/or activity, while being negatively controlled by growth factors, appear to be positively linked with the myogenic factor MyoD, which plays a cooperative role in the induction of growth arrest. MyoD can block proliferation independently of its transcriptional activity. Therefore, the interplay between G1 cyclins and cdk inhibitors, on the one hand, and MyoD and its co-factors, on the other, plays a critical role in myoblast cell cycle withdrawal. Accurate synchronization of dividing myoblasts revealed that MyoD and Myf5 are themselves subject to specific cell cycle-dependent regulation, with MyoD at its highest level in early G1 and its lowest level at the G1 to S phase transition. The time-window when cells exit their cycle into differentiation is in G1, when MyoD is maximal and Myf5 is down. In contrast, quiescent non-differentiating myoblasts (i. e., in G0) present an opposite pattern for the two factors: high Myf5 and no MyoD. Several recent studies have focused on MyoD phosphorylation and its potential role in ubiquitination-mediated degradation of the protein. Linking this phosphorylation to the cell cycle-dependent drop in MyoD protein before S phase leads, to a mechanism implying cdk2-cyclin E and its inhibitors (p57kip and p21cip) in the tight control of MyoD levels and subsequent myoblast cell cycle progression or exit into differentiation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center