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Nucleic Acids Res. 2001 May 15;29(10):2052-8.

UV induces nucleolar translocation of ING1 through two distinct nucleolar targeting sequences.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada.


The ING1 candidate tumor suppressor is downregulated in a variety of primary tumors and established cancer cell lines. Blocking its expression experimentally promotes unregulated growth in vitro and in vivo, using cell and animal models. Alternative splicing products encode proteins that localize to the nucleus, inhibit cell cycle progression and affect apoptosis in different model systems. Here we show that ING1 proteins translocate to the nucleolus 12-48 h after UV-induced DNA damage. When a small 50 amino acid portion of ING1 was fused to green fluorescent protein, the fusion protein was efficiently targeted to the nucleolus, indicating that ING1 possesses an intrinsic nucleolar targeting sequence (NTS). We mapped this activity to two distinct 4 amino acid regions, which individually direct fused heterologous proteins to the nucleolus. Overexpression of ING1 induced apoptosis of primary fibroblasts in the presence and absence of UV exposure. In contrast, NTS mutants of ING1 that were not targeted to the nucleolus did not efficiently induce apoptosis when overexpressed and instead protected cells from UV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that UV induces ING1 to translocate to the nucleolus and that this translocation may facilitate apoptosis.

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