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Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2001 Apr;71(2):262-7.

Threats of incarceration in a psychiatric probation and parole service.

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  • 1Social Work Mental Health Research Center, School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.


This study of the extent to which probation officers use threats of incarceration when working with clients who have mental illness found that collaboration between probation and parole officers and mental health workers significantly enhances the coercive interactions between officers and their clients. Guidelines for collaboration between criminal justice and mental health systems are called for.

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