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PLANT PLASMA MEMBRANE H+-ATPases: Powerhouses for Nutrient Uptake.

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1
Department of Plant Biology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, Frederiksberg C, DK-1871 Denmark; e-mail: palmgren@biobase.dk

Abstract

Most transport proteins in plant cells are energized by electrochemical gradients of protons across the plasma membrane. The formation of these gradients is due to the action of plasma membrane H+ pumps fuelled by ATP. The plasma membrane H+-ATPases share a membrane topography and general mechanism of action with other P-type ATPases, but differ in regulatory properties. Recent advances in the field include the identification of the complete H+-ATPase gene family in Arabidopsis, analysis of H+-ATPase function by the methods of reverse genetics, an improved understanding of the posttranslational regulation of pump activity by 14-3-3 proteins, novel insights into the H+ transport mechanism, and progress in structural biology. Furthermore, the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of a related Ca2+ pump has implications for understanding of structure-function relationships for the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase.

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