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Biochemistry. 2001 Feb 13;40(6):1662-70.

Antibody 17b binding at the coreceptor site weakens the kinetics of the interaction of envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CD4.

Author information

1
University of Pennsylvania, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Abstract

HIV-1 utilizes CD4 and the chemokine coreceptor for viral entry. The coreceptor CCR5 binding site on gp120 partially overlaps with the binding epitope of 17b, a neutralizing antibody of HIV-1. We designed a multicomponent biosensor assay to investigate the kinetic mechanism of interaction between gp120 and its receptors and the cooperative effect of the CCR5 binding site on the CD4 binding site, using 17b as a surrogate of CCR5. The Env gp120 proteins from four viral strains (JRFL, YU2, 89.6, and HXB2) and their corresponding C1-, V1/V2-, C5-deleted mutants (DeltaJRFL, DeltaYU2, Delta89.6, and DeltaHXB2) were tested in this study. We found that, across the primary and lab-adapted virus strains, 17b reduced the affinity of all four full-length Env gp120s for sCD4 by decreasing the on-rate and increasing the off-rate. This effect of 17b on full-length gp120 binding to sCD4 contrasts with the enhancing effect of sCD4 on gp120-17b interaction. For the corresponding loop-deleted mutants of Env gp120, the off-rates of the gp120-sCD4 interaction were greatly reduced in the presence of 17b, resulting in higher affinities (except for that of DeltaHXB2). The results suggest that, when 17b is prebound to full-length gp120, the V1/V2 loops may be relocated to a position that partially blocks the CD4-binding site, leading to weakening of the CD4 interaction. Given the fact that the 17b binding epitope partially overlaps with the binding site of CCR5, the kinetic results suggest that coreceptor CCR5 binding could have a similar "release" effect on the gp120-CD4 interaction by increasing the off-rate of the latter. The results also suggest that the neutralizing effect of 17b may arise not only from partially blocking the CCR5 binding site but also from reducing the CD4 binding affinity of gp120. This negative cooperative effect of 17b may provide insight into approaches to designing antagonists for viral entry.

PMID:
11327825
DOI:
10.1021/bi001397m
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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