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Hypertens Res. 2001 Mar;24(2):127-35.

Mechanism of sodium load-induced hypertension in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus model rats: defective dopaminergic system to inhibit Na-K-ATPase activity in renal epithelial cells.

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Department of Internal Medicine, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.


Obesity-related non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is frequently accompanied by hypertension. The present study was designed to clarify this mechanism. We first determined the blood pressure in male Wistar fatty rats (WFR), one of the NIDDM model rats, and in Wistar lean rats (WLR) as the control, with a normal (0.7% NaCl) or high (7% NaCl) salt diet. We observed no difference in systolic and mean blood pressures between WFR and WLR. WFR, however, became extremely hypertensive as a result of ingesting the high salt diet. We next investigated the mechanism for sodium sensitivity in WFR. Although the urinary excretion of dopamine (DA), a potent natriuretic factor, which reflects the ability for renal DA production, was preserved in WFR, the sodium balance with the high salt diet was positive. Moreover, Na-K-ATPase activity in isolated proximal convoluted tubules (PCT) from WFR with a normal salt diet was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that from WLR. A high salt load produced a significant (p<0.05) decrease in Na-K-ATPase activity in WLR but not in WFR. Similarly, Na-K-ATPase activity in WLR with a normal salt diet was significantly (p<0.05) inhibited by DA (10(-5) M), but this was not true in WFR. Furthermore, urinary excretion of norepinephrine in WFR with a high salt diet was the highest among all the groups. These results indicate that WFR tend to develop salt-sensitive hypertension that could be caused by the excessive sodium retention occurring as the results of a defective dopaminergic system in the kidney that fails to inhibit Na-K-ATPase activity. Augmentation of the renal sympathetic nervous system may play some role in this setting.

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