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Biotechnol Bioeng. 2001 Jun 5;73(5):412-25.

In vivo dynamics of galactose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: metabolic fluxes and metabolite levels.

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Center for Process Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, Building 223, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.


The dynamics of galactose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied by analyzing the metabolic response of the CEN.PK 113-7D wild-type strain when exposed to a galactose pulse during aerobic growth in a galactose-limited steady-state cultivation at a dilution rate of 0.097 h(-1). A fast sampling technique and subsequent methanol-chloroform/solid phase extractions were applied for in vivo measurements of the dynamic changes of the AMP, ADP, ATP levels and the sugar phosphates of the Leloir pathway. The ATP level was found to be significantly lower for yeast growing under galactose limitation (0.37 +/- 0.05 micromol/g CDW) than what has been reported for growth under glucose limitation. The galactose pulse of 5.58 mM was consumed within 40 min (t = 40) and 7 min after the pulse was added cell growth stopped. Subsequently, the cells started to grow and at t = 30 the specific growth rate had recovered to half the steady-state growth rate (0.047 h(-1)). To evaluate the change in flux distribution at steady state and during the galactose transient, a stoichiometric model describing the aerobic metabolism of S. cerevisiae was set up for quantification of the metabolic fluxes. At t = 7 the flux entering the TCA cycle was low and acetate and ethanol started to be excreted to the extracellular medium. During recovery of cell growth the flux entering the TCA cycle increased again, and at t = 30 this flux exceeded the corresponding steady-state flux. During the pulse an enhanced level of Gal-1P was measured, which may be responsible for a toxic metabolic response in S. cerevisiae. The increase in the Gal-1P concentration is intensified by the low affinity of Gal7 towards Gal-1P and, hence, under the physiological conditions examined Gal7 seems to exert control over flux through the Leloir pathway.

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