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Am J Hum Genet. 2001 May;68(5):1119-29. Epub 2001 Apr 17.

Identification of a new candidate locus for uric acid nephrolithiasis.

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Istituto di Genetica Molecolare, CNR, 07040 Santa Maria La Palma (SS), Italy.


Renal stone formation is a common multifactorial disorder, of unknown etiology, with an established genetic contribution. Lifetime risk for nephrolithiasis is approximately 10% in Western populations, and uric acid stones account for 5%-10% of all stones, depending on climatic, dietary, and ethnic differences. We studied a small, isolated founder population in Sardinia, characterized by an increased prevalence of uric acid stones, and performed a genomewide search in a deep-rooted pedigree comprising many members who formed uric acid renal stones. The pedigree was created by tracing common ancestors of affected individuals through a genealogical database based on archival records kept by the parish church since 1640. This genealogical information was used as the basis for the study strategy, involving screening for alleles shared among affected individuals, originating from common ancestors, and utilization of large pedigrees to obtain greater power for linkage detection. We performed multistep linkage and allele-sharing analyses. In the initial stage, 382 markers were typed in 14 closely related affected subjects; interesting regions were subsequently investigated in the whole sample. We identified two chromosomal regions that may harbor loci with susceptibility genes for uric acid stones. The strongest evidence was observed on 10q21-q22, where a LOD score of 3.07 was obtained for D10S1652 under an affected-only dominant model, and a LOD score of 3.90 was obtained using a dominant pseudomarker assignment. The localization was supported also by multipoint allele-sharing statistics and by haplotype analysis of familial cases and of unrelated affected subjects collected from the isolate. In the second region on 20q13.1-13.3, multipoint nonparametric scores yielded suggestive evidence in a approximately 20-cM region, and further analysis is needed to confirm and fine-map this putative locus. Replication studies are required to investigate the involvement of these regions in the genetic contribution to uric acid stone formation.

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