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Chem Biol Interact. 2001 Jan 30;130-132(1-3):323-37.

Aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily: the 2000 update.

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Molecular Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences Program, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 80262, Denver, CO, USA.


Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily represents a group of NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of a wide spectrum of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. With the advent of megabase genome sequencing, the ALDH superfamily is expanding rapidly on many fronts. As expected, ALDH genes are found in virtually all genomes analyzed to date, indicating the importance of these enzymes in biological functions. Complete genome sequences of various species have revealed additional ALDH genes. As of July 2000, the ALDH superfamily consists of 331 distinct genes, of which eight are found in archaea, 165 in eubacteria, and 158 in eukaryota. The number of ALDH genes in some species with their genomes completely sequenced and annotated, Escherichia coli and Caenorhabditis elegans, ranges from 10 to 17. In the human genome, 17 functional genes and three pseudogenes have been identified to date. Divergent evolution, based on multiple alignment analysis of 86 eukaryotic ALDH amino-acid sequences, was the basis of the standardized ALDH gene nomenclature system (Pharmacogenetics 9: 421-434, 1999). Thus far, the eukaryotic ALDHs comprise 20 gene families. A complete list of all ALDH sequences known to date is presented here along with the evolution analysis of the eukaryotic ALDHs.

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