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Anal Chem. 2001 Mar 15;73(6):1196-202.

Simultaneous measurement of dopamine and ascorbate at their physiological levels using voltammetric microprobe based on overoxidized poly(1,2-phenylenediamine)-coated carbon fiber.

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Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana, Slovenia.


Overoxidized poly-(1,2-phenylenediamine) (OPPD)-coated carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) exhibit, in combination with square-wave voltammetry (SWV) detection mode, the attractive ability to simultaneously measure low nM dopamine (DA) and mM ascorbate (AA) in a pH 7.4 medium. The PPD polymer film is electrodeposited onto a carbon fiber at a constant potential of 0.8 V versus Ag/AgCl using a solution containing sodium dodecylsulfate as the dopant. After overoxidation using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in the potential range from 0 to 2.2 V at a scan rate of 10 V/s, the resulting OPPD-CFME displays a high SWV current response to cationic DA at approximately 0.2 V and has a favorably low response to anionic AA at approximately 0.0 V vs Ag/AgCl. The preparation of the new OPPD-sensing film has been carefully studied and optimized. The OPPD properties and behavior were characterized using CV and SWV under various conditions and are discussed with respect to DA and AA detection. The linear calibration range for DA in the presence of 0.3 mM AA is 50 nM to 10 microM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 and a detection limit of 10 nM using 45-s accumulation. The detection limit for DA in the absence of AA was estimated to be 2 nM (S/N = 3). The linear range for AA in the presence of 100 nM DA is 0.2-2 mM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and a detection limit of 80 microM. The reproducibilities of SWV measurements at OPPD-CFCMEs are 1.6% and 2.5% for 100 nM DA and 0.3 mM AA, respectively. Potential interfering agents, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, uric acid, oxalate, human serum proteins, and glucose, at their physiologically relevant or higher concentrations did not have any effect. These favorable features offer great promise for in vitro and in vivo application of the proposed OPPD-coated microprobe.

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