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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Mar;55(3):200-7.

Macronutrient and food intake in the Baltic republics.

Author information

1
European Centre on Health of Societies in Transition, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this study was to describe mean macronutrient and food intakes in the Baltic republics, with a particular focus on fat, vegetable and fruit consumption.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING:

Data from surveys conducted in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the summer of 1997 were used. Information was collected using a 24 h recall of dietary intake and an interviewer-administered questionnaire.

SUBJECTS:

Representative national samples of adults were selected. All those with information from the dietary recall were included in the study (Estonia: n = 2015; Latvia: n = 2300; Lithuania: n = 2094).

RESULTS:

The mean proportion of energy from fat was high in each country, but particularly in Lithuania (44%) and Latvia (42%) compared with Estonia (36%). In contrast, percentage energy from carbohydrate, protein and alcohol was higher in Estonia. Mean protein intake was generally sufficient if not high in some population sub-groups. Median vegetable intakes were very low (<200 g/day) in each country, particularly in Latvia. While 78% of the Lithuanian respondents consumed vegetables daily, this was the case in only 60% of the Latvian and 48% of the Estonian respondents.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study suggests that there is a pressing need to replace high-fat energy dense foods by foods rich in complex carbohydrates and dietary fibre, such as vegetables and fruits, in the Baltic republics. This could provide the populations with a reduced risk and increased protection against non-communicable diseases. These issues will need to be tackled through comprehensive food and nutrition policies and health promotion campaigns.

PMID:
11305269
DOI:
10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601146
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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