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Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Apr;21(4):542-7.

Human paraoxonase-3 is an HDL-associated enzyme with biological activity similar to paraoxonase-1 protein but is not regulated by oxidized lipids.

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  • 1Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.


Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a secreted protein associated primarily with high density lipoprotein (HDL) and participates in the prevention of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Two other paraoxonase (PON) family members, namely, PON2 and PON3, have been identified. In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of the human PON3 gene from HepG2 cells. Tissue Northern analysis identifies an approximately 1.3-kb transcript for PON3 primarily in the liver. PON3-specific peptide antibodies detect an approximately 40-kDa protein associated with HDL and absent from LDL. Pretreatment of cultured human aortic endothelial cells with supernatants from HeLa Tet On cell lines overexpressing PON3 prevents the formation of mildly oxidized LDL and inactivates preformed mildly oxidized LDL. In contrast to PON1, PON3 is not active against the synthetic substrates paraoxon and phenylacetate. Furthermore, PON3 expression is not regulated in HepG2 cells by oxidized phospholipids and is not regulated in the livers of mice fed a high-fat atherogenic diet.

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