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J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001 Feb;69(1):41-9.

Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptomatology in a sample of Gulf War veterans: a prospective analysis.

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National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Jamaica Plain Campus, USA.


The authors examined the relationship over time of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in a sample of Gulf War veterans. A large sample (N = 2,949) of Gulf War veterans was assessed immediately following their return from the Gulf region and 18-24 months later. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires including the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD (T. M. Keane, J. M. Caddell, & K. L. Taylor, 1988) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983) at both time points and an extended and updated version of the Laufer Combat Scale (M. Gallops, R. S. Laufer, & T. Yager, 1981) at the initial assessment. A latent-variable, cross-lag panel model found evidence for a reciprocal relation between PTSD and Depression. Follow-up models examining reexperiencing, avoidance-numbing, and hyperarousal symptoms separately showed that for reexperiencing and avoidance-numbing symptoms, the overall reciprocal relation held. For hyperarousal symptoms, however, the association was from early hyperarousal to later depression symptoms only.

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