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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr;86(4):1788-94.

Absence of functional type 1 parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related protein receptors in humans is associated with abnormal breast development and tooth impaction.

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Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8020, USA.


Recent studies in transgenic mice have demonstrated that PTH-related protein (PTHrP), signaling through the type 1 PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTHR1), regulates endochondral bone development and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during the formation of the mammary glands and teeth. Recently, it has been shown that loss-of-function mutations in the PTHR1 gene result in a rare, lethal form of dwarfism known as Blomstrand chondrodysplasia. These patients suffer from severe defects in endochondral bone formation, but abnormalities in breast and tooth development have not been reported. To ascertain whether PTHrP signaling was important to human breast and tooth development, we studied two fetuses with Blomstrand chondrodysplasia. These fetuses lack nipples and breasts. Developing teeth were present, but they were severely impacted within the surrounding alveolar bone, leading to distortions in their architecture and orientation. Compatible with the involvement of PTHR1 and PTHrP in human breast and tooth morphogenesis, both were expressed within the developing breasts and teeth of normal human fetuses. Therefore, impairment of the PTHrP/PTHR1 signaling pathway in humans is associated with severe abnormalities in tooth and breast development. In addition to regulating human bone formation, this signaling pathway is also necessary for the normal development of the human breast and tooth.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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