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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr;86(4):1665-71.

Close association of urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 with appropriate and inappropriate arginine vasopressin-dependent antidiuresis in hyponatremia in elderly subjects.

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1
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical School, Tochigi 329-0498 Japan. saneiskw@jichi.ac.jp

Abstract

The present study was undertaken to determine whether urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) participates in the involvement of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in hyponatremia less than 130 mmol/L in 33 elderly subjects (> or =65 yr old) during the last 5-yr period. Subjects were separated into euvolemic hyponatremia groups: 13 with hypopituitarism, 8 with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), 8 with mineralocorticoid-responsive hyponatremia of the elderly, and 4 with miscellaneous diseases. Approximately 40% of those with hyponatremia was derived from hypopituitarism, but severe hyponatremia was found in the patients with SIADH and mineralocorticoid-responsive hyponatremia of the elderly. Plasma AVP levels remained relatively high despite hypoosmolality and were tightly linked with exaggerated urinary excretion of AQP-2 and antidiuresis in the 3 groups of patients, except for one miscellaneous one. An acute water load test verified the impairment in water excretion, because the percent excretion of the water load was less than 42% and the minimal urinary osmolality was not sufficiently diluted. Also, plasma AVP and urinary excretion of AQP-2 were not reduced after the water load. The inappropriate secretion of AVP was evident in the patients with SIADH and hypopituitarism, and hydrocortisone replacement normalized urinary excretion of AQP-2 and renal water excretion in those with hypopituitarism. In contrast, the appropriate antidiuresis seemed to compensate loss of body fluid in the patients with mineralocorticoid-responsive hyponatremia of the elderly, who lost circulatory blood volume by 7.3% (mean). Fludrocortisone acetate increased renal sodium handling and body fluid, resulting in the reduction in AVP release and urinary excretion of AQP-2 in mineralocorticoid-responsive hyponatremia of the elderly. These findings indicate that urinary excretion of AQP-2 may be a more sensitive measure of AVP effect on renal collecting duct cells than are plasma AVP levels, and that increased urinary excretion of AQP-2 shows exaggerated AVP-induced antidiuresis in hyponatremic subjects in the elderly. In addition, mineralocorticoid-responsive hyponatremia of the elderly has to be carefully differentiated from SIADH in elderly subjects.

PMID:
11297601
DOI:
10.1210/jcem.86.4.7426
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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