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Mol Biol Cell. 2001 Apr;12(4):795-808.

Golgi complex reorganization during muscle differentiation: visualization in living cells and mechanism.

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Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4062, USA.


During skeletal muscle differentiation, the Golgi complex (GC) undergoes a dramatic reorganization. We have now visualized the differentiation and fusion of living myoblasts of the mouse muscle cell line C2, permanently expressing a mannosidase-green fluorescent protein (GFP) construct. These experiments reveal that the reorganization of the GC is progressive (1-2 h) and is completed before the cells start fusing. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), immunofluorescence, and immunogold electron microscopy demonstrate that the GC is fragmented into elements localized near the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites. FRAP analysis and the ER relocation of endogenous GC proteins by phospholipase A2 inhibitors demonstrate that Golgi-ER cycling of resident GC proteins takes place in both myoblasts and myotubes. All results support a model in which the GC reorganization in muscle reflects changes in the Golgi-ER cycling. The mechanism is similar to that leading to the dispersal of the GC caused, in all mammalian cells, by microtubule-disrupting drugs. We propose that the trigger for the dispersal results, in muscle, from combined changes in microtubule nucleation and ER exit site localization, which place the ER exit sites near microtubule minus ends. Thus, changes in GC organization that initially appear specific to muscle cells, in fact use pathways common to all mammalian cells.

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