Send to

Choose Destination
Psychol Sci. 2001 Jan;12(1):30-6.

Brain-mind states: reciprocal variation in thoughts and hallucinations.

Author information

Institute of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway.


The exclusion of thinking from recent studies of sleep mentation has hindered a full appreciation of how cognitive activity differs across the states of waking and sleep. To overcome this limitation, this study investigated thoughts and hallucinations using experience sampling, home-based sleep-wake monitoring, and formal analyses of the psychological data. The prevalence of thoughts decreased gradually from waking through sleep onset and non-REM sleep, to reach its nadir in REM sleep, whereas hallucinations increased sharply across these states. Furthermore, multiple occurrences of hallucinations but not of thoughts increased significantly from sleep onset through non-REM sleep, to a peak in REM sleep. This reciprocity in thoughts and hallucinations might reflect a progressive shift from high to low aminergic-to-cholinergic neuromodulatory ratios across wake-sleep states, accompanied by an array of changes in the regional activation patterns of the brain.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center