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J Immunol. 2001 Apr 15;166(8):5145-54.

Expression cloning of the STRL33/BONZO/TYMSTRligand reveals elements of CC, CXC, and CX3C chemokines.

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  • 1Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.


STRL33/BONZO/TYMSTR is an orphan chemokine and HIV/SIV coreceptor receptor that is expressed on activated T lymphocytes. We describe an expression cloning strategy whereby we isolated a novel chemokine, which we name CXCL16. CXCL16 is an alpha (CXC) chemokine but also has characteristics of CC chemokines and a structure similar to fractalkine (neurotactin) in having a transmembrane region and a chemokine domain suspended by a mucin-like stalk. A recombinant version of CXCL16 fails to mediate chemotaxis to all known chemokine receptor transfectants tested but does mediate robust chemotaxis, high affinity binding, and calcium mobilization to Bonzo receptor transfectants, indicating that this is a unique receptor ligand interaction. In vitro polarized T cell subsets including Th1, Th2, and Tr1 cells express functional Bonzo, suggesting expression of this receptor in chronic inflammation, which we further verified by demonstration of CXCL16-mediated migration of tonsil-derived CD4(+) T lymphocytes. CXCL16 is expressed on the surface of APCs including subsets of CD19(+) B cells and CD14(+) monocyte/macrophages, and functional CXCL16 is also shed from macrophages. The combination of unique structural features of both Bonzo and CXCL16 suggest that this interaction may represent a new class of ligands for this receptor family. Additionally, this chemokine might play a unique dual role of attracting activated lymphocyte subsets during inflammation as well as facilitating immune responses via cell-cell contact.

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