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J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001 Mar;13(2):133-42.

Detection and duration of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in semen, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and tissues from Yorkshire, Hampshire, and Landrace boars.

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1
Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007-1396, USA.

Abstract

Because transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can occur through boar semen, it is important to identify persistently infected boars. However, even for boars given the same PRRSV strain and dose, variability in the duration of viral shedding in semen has been observed, suggesting that host factors are involved in PRRSV persistence. To determine whether there are host genetic factors, particularly litter and breed differences related to the persistence of PRRSV, 3 litters from 3 purebred swine breeds were used for this study. It was also determined whether PRRSV could be detected for a longer period of time in serum, semen, or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and if PRRSV could still be detected in tissues after these antemortem specimens were PRRSV negative for a minimum of 2-3 weeks. Three Hampshire, 3 Yorkshire, and 2 Landrace PRRSV-naive boars were obtained and inoculated intranasally with a wild-type PRRSV isolate (SD-23983). All boars within each breed were from the same litter, and litters were within 9 days of age. Serum and PBMC were collected twice weekly from each boar and analyzed for the presence of PRRSV by virus isolation and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum was also used to obtain virus neutralization titers and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay S/P values. Semen was collected twice weekly from 7 of 8 boars and analyzed by PCR. After all specimens were PRRSV negative for a minimum of 2-3 weeks, each boar was euthanized, and 21 tissues plus saliva, serum, feces, and urine were collected. All postmortem specimens were evaluated by virus isolation. Specimens that were PRRSV negative by virus isolation were then evaluated by PCR. The mean number of days (+/-SD) for the duration of PRRSV shedding in semen was 51+/-26.9 days, 7.5+/-4.9 days, and 28.3+/-17.5 days for Landrace, Yorkshire, and Hampshire boars, respectively. Because of small sample sizes and large SDs, the differences in duration of PRRSV shedding in semen between breeds were not considered significant. However, the trend suggested that Yorkshire boars were more resistant to PRRSV shedding in semen than were Landrace boars, requiring further investigation using a larger numbers of boars. PRRSV was detected for a longer period in semen than in serum or PBMC in 4 of 7 boars. Viremia could be detected for a longer period in serum than in PBMC in 6 of 8 boars. After a minimum of 2-3 weeks of PRRSV-negative serum, semen, and PBMC, PRRSV could still be detected in the tonsil of 3 of 8 boars by virus isolation, indicating that boars still harbor PRRSV within the tonsil even though antemortem specimens are PRRSV negative.

PMID:
11289209
DOI:
10.1177/104063870101300207
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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