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Mol Cell Biol. 2001 May;21(9):3057-70.

Inhibition of cellular proliferation through IkappaB kinase-independent and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent repression of cyclin D1.

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Departments of Developmental and Molecular Biology and Medicine, The Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.


The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor superfamily member. Liganded PPARgamma exerts diverse biological effects, promoting adipocyte differentiation, inhibiting tumor cellular proliferation, and regulating monocyte/macrophage and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. In vivo studies with PPARgamma ligands showed enhancement of tumor growth, raising the possibility that reduced immune function and tumor surveillance may outweigh the direct inhibitory effects of PPARgamma ligands on cellular proliferation. Recent findings that PPARgamma ligands convey PPARgamma-independent activities through IkappaB kinase (IKK) raises important questions about the specific mechanisms through which PPARgamma ligands inhibit cellular proliferation. We investigated the mechanisms regulating the antiproliferative effect of PPARgamma. Herein PPARgamma, liganded by either natural (15d-PGJ(2) and PGD(2)) or synthetic ligands (BRL49653 and troglitazone), selectively inhibited expression of the cyclin D1 gene. The inhibition of S-phase entry and activity of the cyclin D1-dependent serine-threonine kinase (Cdk) by 15d-PGJ(2) was not observed in PPARgamma-deficient cells. Cyclin D1 overexpression reversed the S-phase inhibition by 15d-PGJ(2). Cyclin D1 repression was independent of IKK, as prostaglandins (PGs) which bound PPARgamma but lacked the IKK interactive cyclopentone ring carbonyl group repressed cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 repression by PPARgamma involved competition for limiting abundance of p300, directed through a c-Fos binding site of the cyclin D1 promoter. 15d-PGJ(2) enhanced recruitment of p300 to PPARgamma but reduced binding to c-Fos. The identification of distinct pathways through which eicosanoids regulate anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects may improve the utility of COX2 inhibitors.

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