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Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2001 Apr;52(4):443-8.

Direct coronary stent implantation: safety, feasibility, and predictors of success of the strategy of direct coronary stent implantation.

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Amsterdam Department of Interventional Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gastituis, The Netherlands.


This prospective study was designed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, predictive factors of success, and 6-month follow-up of stent implantation without balloon predilatation (direct stenting) in 250 patients undergoing elective stent implantation. Balloon dilatation prior to stent implantation was a prerequisite to facilitate passage and deployment of the stent. Stent technology has changed tremendously, resulting in stents with improved properties, which may allow stent placement without prior balloon dilatation. Patients with coronary lesions suitable for elective stent implantation were included in this trial. Coronary interventions were undertaken predominantly via the transradial route using 6 Fr guiding catheters. Direct stent implantation was attempted using AVE GFX II coronary stent delivery systems. Upon failure, predilatation was undertaken before reattempting stent implantation. Patient data and ECGs were obtained from case records and from personal or telephone interviews 6 months after the procedure. Values were presented as mean +/- standard deviation. Student's t-test, two-tailed at 5% level of significance, was used to compare the difference of two means. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to establish predictive factors for failure of direct stenting. Two hundred and sixty-six direct stent implantations were attempted in 250 patients. Direct stenting was successful in 226 (85%) cases. Out of 40(15%) cases where direct stenting failed, balloon predilatation facilitated stent implantation in 39. In one lesion, stent implantation was not possible despite adequate predilatation. Predictive factors for failure of direct stenting on multivariate analysis were LCx lesions (P < 0.01), complex lesions (P < 0.01), and longer stents (P < 0.001). Minimal luminal diameter and percentage diameter stenosis of lesions in the successful and the failure group were not significantly different (0.94 +/- 0.39 mm vs. 0.84 +/- 0.41 mm, P = NS, and 70.2 +/- 11.2 vs. 73.2 +/- 11.2, P = NS). Stent loss occurred in five (2.0%) cases, with successful retrieval in four. One stent was lost permanently in a small branch of the radial artery. Post-percutaneous coronary intervention (post-PCI) myocardial infarction occurred in four (1.6%) patients. There were no other in-hospital events. Six-month-follow up information was obtained in 99% of patients. Subacute stent thrombosis was noted in four (1.6%) cases. Target vessel-related myocardial infarction rate was 3.2%, of which half was caused by subacute stent thrombosis. The overall reintervention rate (coronary artery bypass grafting or PCI) was 9.7%. Target lesion revascularization by PCI occurred in only 4.0%. At 6 months, overall mortality was 2.0%, of which 1.2% was due to coronary events. Direct stent implantation is safe and feasible in the majority of cases with low rate of complications. Unfavorable factors include circumflex lesion, more complex lesion morphology, and increasing length of stent. Severity of stenosis does not appear to be of predictive value. Long-term outcome is favorable with a low target lesion revascularization rate.

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