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J Pathol. 2001 Apr;193(4):505-10.

Gain-of-function mutation at the extracellular domain of KIT in gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

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Department of Pathology, Osaka University Medical School, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the human gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies of GISTs found gain-of-function mutations of the c-kit gene, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT). All the mutations were confined to exon 11, which encodes the juxtamembrane domain. By further examination of the whole coding region of c-kit complementary DNA in 35 GISTs, two were found to show the identical mutation at exon 9, which encodes the extracellular domain. The aims of the present study were to examine the frequency of the extracellular domain mutation and to determine whether the mutation is a gain-of-function type or not. Genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues of 133 GISTs and exon 9 of the c-kit gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Screening of the mutation was carried out by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing was done. Mutant c-kit cDNA was transfected into 293T human embryonic kidney cells and the magnitude of autophosphorylation of the mutant KIT was examined with or without the ligand of KIT, stem cell factor (SCF). In total, seven GIST cases (approximately 5%) were found with the identical mutation at exon 9. The mutant KIT exhibited constitutive autophosphorylation without SCF stimulation. The prognosis of the patients with the extracellular domain mutation was comparable to that of the patients with the juxtamembrane domain mutation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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