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Physiol Rev. 2001 Apr;81(2):767-806.

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate: a P2-purinergic agonist in the myocardium.

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1
Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U. 390, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France. vassort@montp.inserm.fr

Abstract

ATP, besides an intracellular energy source, is an agonist when applied to a variety of different cells including cardiomyocytes. Sources of ATP in the extracellular milieu are multiple. Extracellular ATP is rapidly degraded by ectonucleotidases. Today ionotropic P2X(1--7) receptors and metabotropic P2Y(1,2,4,6,11) receptors have been cloned and their mRNA found in cardiomyocytes. On a single cardiomyocyte, micromolar ATP induces nonspecific cationic and Cl(-) currents that depolarize the cells. ATP both increases directly via a G(s) protein and decreases Ca(2+) current. ATP activates the inward-rectifying currents (ACh- and ATP-activated K(+) currents) and outward K(+) currents. P2-purinergic stimulation increases cAMP by activating adenylyl cyclase isoform V. It also involves tyrosine kinases to activate phospholipase C-gamma to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange to induce a large transient acidosis. No clear correlation is presently possible between an effect and the activation of a given P2-receptor subtype in cardiomyocytes. ATP itself is generally a positive inotropic agent. Upon rapid application to cells, ATP induces various forms of arrhythmia. At the tissue level, arrhythmia could be due to slowing of electrical spread after both Na(+) current decrease and cell-to-cell uncoupling as well as cell depolarization and Ca(2+) current increase. In as much as the information is available, this review also reports analog effects of UTP and diadenosine polyphosphates.

PMID:
11274344
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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