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Scand J Work Environ Health. 2001 Feb;27(1):30-40.

Questionnaire versus direct technical measurements in assessing postures and movements of the head, upper back, arms and hands.

Author information

1
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. gert-ake.hansson@ymed.lu.se

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study compares questionnaire-assessed exposure data on work postures and movements with direct technical measurements.

METHODS:

Inclinometers and goniometers were used to make full workday measurements of 41 office workers and 41 cleaners, stratified for such factors as musculoskeletal complaints. The subjects answered a questionnaire on work postures of the head, back, and upper arms and repeated movements of the arms and hands (3-point scales). The questionnaire had been developed on the basis of a previously validated one. For assessing worktasks and their durations, the subjects kept a 2-week worktask diary. Job exposure was individually calculated by time-weighting the task exposure measurements according to the diary.

RESULTS:

The agreement between the self-assessed and measured postures and movements was low (kappa = 0.06 for the mean within the occupational groups and kappa = 0.27 for the whole group). Cleaners had a higher measured workload than office workers giving the same questionnaire response. Moreover, the subjects with neck-shoulder complaints rated their exposure to movements as higher than those without complaints but with the same measured mechanical exposure. In addition, these subjects also showed a general tendency to rate their postural exposure as higher. The women rated their exposure higher than the men did.

CONCLUSIONS:

The questionnaire-assessed exposure data had low validity. For the various response categories the measured exposure depended on occupation. Furthermore, there was a differential misclassification due to musculoskeletal complaints and gender. Thus it seems difficult to construct valid questionnaires on mechanical exposure for establishing generic exposure-response relations in epidemiologic studies, especially cross-sectional ones. Direct technical measurements may be preferable.

PMID:
11266144
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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