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Compartmentation of G protein-coupled signaling pathways in cardiac myocytes.

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Department of Pharmacology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.


There is a large body of functional data that supports the existence of subcellular compartmentation of the components of cyclic AMP action in the heart. Data from isolated perfused hearts and from purified ventricular myocytes imply a fixed and hormone-specific spatial relationship amongst components of cyclic AMP synthesis, response, and degradation. Available data demonstrate that within a cardiac myocyte, not all cyclic AMP gains access to all cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), that not all PKA interacts with all possible cellular substrates of PKA, and that only a subset of the myocyte's phosphodiesterases (PDEs) may degrade cyclic AMP after a given synthetic stimulus. Molecular mechanisms contributing to compartmentation are being discovered: localization of receptors, G proteins, and adenylyl cyclases in caveolar versus noncaveolar regions of the sarcolemma; localization of PKA by A-kinase anchoring proteins; localization of PKA substrates, PDE isoforms, and phosphoprotein phosphatases in discrete subcellular regions; and differential regulation of multiple isoforms of adenylyl cyclase, phosphoprotein phosphatase, and PDE in distinct subcellular compartments.

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